Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world with a massive coastal population and growing economy. It is estimated that 83% of the waste generated in Indonesia is mismanaged – not properly recycled or safely disposed of in sanitary landfills.
Recent scientific research shows that Indonesia could be responsible for as much as 1.29 million metric tons of plastic waste in our oceans annually, marking the country as the world’s second largest polluter as measured by total mass of mismanaged plastic debris. The Government of Indonesia is pursuing national-level strategies and policies for solid waste management and is implementing a national plan of action on marine plastic debris. However, local governments often lack the funding they need to implement these initiatives at the city level. As the fourth most populous nation in the world with a massive coastal population, Indonesia represents a key opportunity to confront the challenge of ocean plastics.
Waste generation in the Philippines varies from 0.2 kg per capita per day in rural areas to close to 1.0 kg per capita per day in affluent urban areas. The Filipino government has put in place regulations for waste collection and treatment at the national level and plastic regulations at various local levels. Unfortunately, solid waste management supervision and rules enforcement are weak.
Currently, waste is disposed of in open dumping sites, as well as sanitary and unsanitary landfills. Local initiatives to promote waste segregation at source and “zero waste” initiatives are increasing plastic waste recycling.
Over the past few decades, Sri Lanka has enjoyed advantages in economic growth; however, this development has come at a cost, particularly in regards to coastal pollution. In 2005, Sri Lanka generated an estimated 6,400 metric tons/day of solid waste.
Vietnam has experienced rapid urbanization and industrialization, notably in the last twenty years, as the country strives to reach industrialized nation status by 2020. Such intense development, particularly taking place in its larger cities, has led to an average annual increase of 10 to 16 % in urban waste generation.